You're now meeting with your last "client" before you go home. As you listen to this person's story, you start to get tense. You find yourself avoiding making direct eye contact with her, and you feel yourself shutting down emotionally. You don't want to listen to her complaints at all; instead, you just want to finish. Rather than taking your frustrations out on this person, however, you apologize and ask for a five-minute break.
You go for a quick walk outside, breathe deeply, and then stop for some water. When you go back into your office, you're smiling, refreshed, and ready to help. Most people experience some degree of stress in their jobs. But if you understand the most common types of stress and know how to spot them, you can manage your stress much better.
This, in turn, helps you to work productively, build better relationships, and live a healthier life. In this article, we'll examine four common types of stress, and we'll discuss how you can manage each of them more effectively. Dr Karl Albrecht, a management consultant and conference speaker based in California, is a pioneer in the development of stress-reduction training for businesspeople. He defined four common types of stress in his book, " Stress and the Manager.
Let's look at each of these types of stress in detail, and discuss how you can identify and deal with each one. You experience time stress when you worry about time, or the lack thereof. You worry about the number of things that you have to do, and you fear that you'll fail to achieve something important.
You might feel trapped, unhappy, or even hopeless. Common examples of time stress include worrying about deadlines or rushing to avoid being late for a meeting. Time stress is one of the most common types of stress that we experience today. It is essential to learn how to manage this type of stress if you're going to work productively in a busy organization.
First, learn good time management skills. Next, make sure that you're devoting enough time to your important priorities. Unfortunately, it's easy to get caught up in seemingly urgent tasks which actually have little impact on your overall objectives. This can leave you feeling exhausted, or feeling that you worked a full day yet accomplished nothing meaningful.
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Your important tasks are usually the ones that will help you reach your goals, and working on these projects is a better use of your time. If you often feel that you don't have enough time to complete all of your tasks, learn how to create more time in your day. This might mean coming in early or working late, so that you have quiet time to focus.
You should also use your peak working time to concentrate on your most important tasks — because you're working more efficiently, this helps you do more with the time you have. For instance, if you're a morning person, schedule the tasks that need the greatest concentration during this time. You can leave less important tasks, like checking email, for times when your energy levels drop. Anticipatory stress describes stress that you experience concerning the future.
Sometimes this stress can be focused on a specific event, such as an upcoming presentation that you're going to give. However, anticipatory stress can also be vague and undefined, such as an overall sense of dread about the future, or a worry that "something will go wrong. Because anticipatory stress is future based, start by recognizing that the event you're dreading doesn't have to play out as you imagine. Research shows that your mind often can't tell the difference, on a basic neurological level, between a situation that you've visualized going well repeatedly and one that's actually happened.
You can learn another 76 stress management skills, like this, by joining the Mind Tools Club. Receive new career skills every week, plus get our latest offers and a free downloadable Personal Development Plan workbook. Consider setting aside time daily — even if it's only five minutes — to meditate.
Anticipatory stress can result from a lack of confidence. For example, you might be stressing over a presentation that you're giving next week, because you're afraid that your presentation won't be interesting. Often, addressing these personal fears directly will lower your stress. In this example, if you put in extra time to practice and prepare for tough questions, you'll likely feel more prepared for the event.
This can help diminish your fear of failure and give you a greater sense of control over events.source site
10 Signs It's More Than Just Stress
You experience situational stress when you're in a scary situation that you have no control over. This could be an emergency. More commonly, however, it's a situation that involves conflict, or a loss of status or acceptance in the eyes of your group. For instance, getting laid off or making a major mistake in front of your team are examples of events that can cause situational stress. Situational stress often appears suddenly, for example, you might get caught in a situation that you completely failed to anticipate. To manage situational stress better, learn to be more self-aware. This means recognizing the "automatic" physical and emotional signals that your body sends out when you're under pressure.
For example, imagine that the meeting you're in suddenly dissolves into a shouting match between team members. Your automatic response is to feel a surge of anxiety. Your stomach knots and feels bloated. You withdraw into yourself and, if someone asks for your input, you have a difficult time knowing what to say. Conflict is a major source of situational stress. Everyone reacts to situational stress differently, and it's essential that you understand both the physical and emotional symptoms of this stress, so that you can manage them appropriately.
If your natural response is to get angry and shout, then learn how to manage your emotions. For centuries yogis have used breath control, or pranayama, to promote concentration and improve vitality. The Buddha advocated breath-meditation as a way to reach enlightenment. Science is just beginning to provide evidence that the benefits of this ancient practice are real. Studies have found, for example, that breathing practices can help reduce symptoms associated with anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and attention deficit disorder.
When your mind is racing or you feel keyed up, try Rock and Roll breathing, which has the added benefit of strengthening your core. One study recruited 35 unemployed men and women who were seeking work and experiencing considerable stress. All of them participated in stretching exercises, but half of them were also taught formal mindfulness meditation.
After three days, everyone said they felt refreshed and better able to withstand the stress of unemployment. Yet follow-up brain scans showed differences in only those who underwent mindfulness meditation. There was more activity, or communication, among the portions of their brains that process stress-related reactions and other areas related to focus and calm.
Four months later, those who had practiced mindfulness showed much lower levels in their blood of a marker of unhealthy inflammation than the relaxation group, even though few were still meditating. Another way to cope with stress: writing. It is based on the idea that we all have a personal narrative that shapes our view of the world and ourselves. Some researchers believe that by writing and then editing our own stories, we can change our perceptions of ourselves and identify obstacles that stand in the way of better health.
It may sound like self-help nonsense, but research suggests the effects are real. Timothy D. There are a number of methods to tap into the power of expressive writing:. Journal every day.
7 Emotional Symptoms of Stress: What They Are and What You Can Do
Just writing about your thoughts, feelings and experiences every day can help. Explore your thoughts and feelings about an issue. Be disciplined and write at the same time every day so it becomes a habit. In a University of Texas study, students who wrote about stressful or traumatic events for four days in a row reaped the benefits for months after.
For the next six months, the writing students had fewer visits to the campus health center and used fewer pain relievers than the students in the experiment who wrote about trivial matters. Change your story. Use writing to force yourself to confront the changes you need to make in your life. The next day review your writing. Now ask: What is really standing in the way of your goals? Change the story so you have control.
I let other people talk me into spending money rather than saving. Write a mission statement. People deal with stress better when they have a strong moral compass. This means knowing what you value in life and using that as a guidepost for all decision. By creating a mission statement people can begin to identify the underlying causes of behaviors, as well as what truly motivates them to change.
Emotional Signs of Too Much Stress
According to the Harvard Health Letter, gender can play a role in how you eat during times of stress. Some research suggests women are more likely overeat due to stress while men turn to alcohol or smoking. And the reality is that food really can make you feel better during times of stress. The problem with continuing to self-medicate chronic stress with comfort foods is that it will lead to weight gain and poor health. Just as you need to reframe your view of stress and exercise and meditate to give your body a break from stress, you can also adopt strategies to use food to help you better cope with stress.
During times of stress, we can be particularly careless about what we eat and resort to mindless snacking, grabbing sweets from the office treat table or eating bags of junk food on the run. Michael Finkelstein, a holistic physician who oversees SunRaven , a holistic-living center in Bedford, N. A concept based on Buddhist teachings encourages people to eat slowly, paying close attention to the sensation and purpose of each morsel.
The pressure of family responsibilities is one of the most common forms of stress. But during times of stress, our friends and family members are most likely to give us the support we need to get through it. One of my favorite friendship studies involved a steep hill, a heavy backpack and 34 university students.
Students were fitted with a backpack full of free weights equivalent to 20 percent of their body weight. They stood at the base of a hill on the University of Virginia campus with a degree incline. Wearing the heavy backpack, they had to imagine climbing that hill and guess the incline. When a student stood alone, he or she tended to guess that the hill was very steep. And the longer the friends had known each other, the less steep the hill appeared. Time and again research shows that social support is a defining element in our happiness, quality of life and ability to cope with stress.
During times of high stress we have a tendency to retreat. We cancel social plans and focus on the work, money crisis or trauma that is our source of stress. But friends and social support are among the best forms of therapy to help you escape stress for brief periods of time.
When Dr. Southwick, Yale Medical School psychiatrist, co-wrote his book on resilience, he interviewed a number of people who had shown resilience against all odds, including former prisoners of war and people who had survived trauma. One thing they had in common was social support. Even POWs held in isolation devised a tapping method of communication with their fellow prisoners. Sometimes they just talk about it; some patients want to map it out on paper. Who can you count on?
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Make your own list of your social network and keep it handy when you need to call on someone for support. If you lead a highly stressful life, the solution may be to add one more task to your daily to-do list. Give back. Research consistently shows that helping other people and giving social support is a powerful way to manage the stress in your life and boost your resilience. The simple act of touching another person — or being touched — can ease your stress.
James A. Coan, an assistant professor of psychology and a neuroscientist at the University of Virginia, recruited 16 women who felt they had strong support in their relationships. To simulate stress, he subjected each woman to a mild electric shock under three conditions, all while monitoring her brain. Coan says the study simulates how a supportive marriage and partnership gives the brain the opportunity to outsource some of its most difficult neural work.
Spending time with your pet can offer a temporary reprieve from stress. Spending time with your dog and taking it for a walk is a twofer — you get the stress reduction of a pet plus the stress-busting benefits of a walk outdoors. The evidence that pets are a source of comfort and stress relief is compelling. At Veterans Affairs hospitals, therapy animals including dogs and parrots have helped patients undergoing treatment for post-traumatic stress reduce their anxiety. In a controlled study of therapy dog visits among patients with heart disease, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, found a significant reduction in anxiety levels and blood pressure in the heart and lungs in those who spent 12 minutes with a visiting animal, but no such effect occurred among comparable patients not visited by a dog.
While some stress is essential for human function, chronic stress creates a cascade of physical changes throughout your body. Heart: During a stressful event, your heart rate increases and your body releases the stress hormones — cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In some parts of the body skin, digestive system, brain blood vessels constrict, allowing blood flow to increase to larger systems heart, large muscles.
The body is redirecting oxygen and nutrients to the areas where they are needed most to give you the strength to fight or flee. But blood flowing to a smaller area causes blood pressure to rise. Normally the effects are temporary, but some research suggests that in people with chronic stress, the effects on the heart are unrelenting, raising the risk for high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke. Immune System: Chronic stress can depress the immune system and make you more vulnerable to colds or more serious illnesses.
Diabetes Risk: During stress, the liver increases glucose production for a boost of energy to propel you during an emergency. Chronic stress can lead to extra blood sugar, increasing risk for diabetes, especially among those already at high risk, such as the overweight or those with a family history of the disease. According to the American Psychological Association , learning to manage your stress can be nearly as effective at controlling blood sugar as medication.
Stomach and Digestion: Stress can affect how fast food moves through your body, stomach acid and the absorption of nutrients. Chronic stress can also lead to overeating or alcohol use. All of these factors can contribute to a number of gastrointestinal issues including acid reflux, heartburn pain, nausea, stomach pain, ulcers and diarrhea. Sex and Reproduction: In men, chronic stress can affect testosterone levels and sperm count, and contribute to erectile dysfunction.
In women, stress can create irregular menstrual cycles and painful periods and exacerbate premenstrual syndrome. Stress can also worsen the symptoms of menopause, including more frequent and more severe hot flashes. In both men and women, chronic stress can dampen sexual desire. An estimated 1 in 8 patients develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that doubles the risk of dying of a second attack. Tara Parker-Pope is the founding editor of Well, an award-winning consumer health site with news and features to help readers live well every day.
Twitter: nytimes. Save for Later. Take Control Stress is inevitable; getting sick from it is not. People in the study answered these two questions: During the past 12 months, would you say that you experienced: A lot of stress A moderate amount of stress Relatively little stress Almost no stress at all How much effect has stress had on your health? A lot Some Hardly any None The researchers looked at death rates in the study group over nine years.
Changing your perception With stress, the mind and the body are intrinsically linked. This means that: Common View: Stress is increasing my risk for cardiovascular disease and heart attack. Alternative View: My heart is working harder and my body is mobilizing its energy to get ready for this challenge. This means that: Common View: My fast breathing is a sign of anxiety. I worry about how stress is affecting my mental and physical health. Alternative View: I should take a deep breath. My faster breathing means more oxygen is getting to my brain so I can think more clearly.
This means that: Common View: I can feel my blood pressure rising. Alternative View: Circulatory changes are allowing more oxygen and nutrients to fuel my muscles. More on taking control of stress How to Build Resilience in Midlife There are active steps you can take during and after a crisis to speed your emotional recovery.
Post-Election Stress How to follow the news in a political age of anxiety. Teaching Teenagers to Cope With Social Stress Students reported more confidence after an exercise intended to instill a basic message: People can change. Quiet all those negative thoughts swirling around your brain. The Year of Conquering Negative Thinking. Practice Stress Learn skills to better handle stress.
The American Psychological Association defines resilience this way: Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress — such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors.
Adopt a positive attitude. Optimism is strongly related to resilience. To Better Cope With Stress, Listen to Your Body To handle stress and adversity more effectively, we should probably pay closer attention to what is happening inside our bodies, according to a fascinating new brain study.
New research shows that men and women feel more stressed out at home than when they are at work. Is Work Your Happy Place? Therapists Offer Strategies for Postelection Stress How to follow the news in a political age of anxiety. Exercise Numerous studies have shown us that exercise can improve your mood. How Exercise Can Calm Anxiety. Why Exercise Makes You Less Anxious Thanks to improved research techniques and a growing understanding of the biochemistry and the genetics of thought itself, scientists are beginning to tease out how exercise remodels the brain, making it more stress-resistant.
It may not require much physical activity to provide lasting emotional resilience. Mind Exercise your mind and let it rest to help it better process stress. Controlled Breathing Controlled breathing has been shown to reduce stress, increase alertness and boost your immune system. Rock and Roll Breathing When your mind is racing or you feel keyed up, try Rock and Roll breathing, which has the added benefit of strengthening your core. Meditation One study recruited 35 unemployed men and women who were seeking work and experiencing considerable stress.
To learn more about meditation, try the introductory exercise below. Basic Mindfulness Meditation Learn how to pay close attention to the present moment with this meditation exercise. Write it down Another way to cope with stress: writing. There are a number of methods to tap into the power of expressive writing: Journal every day. How to Meditate Learning how to meditate is straightforward, and the benefits can come quickly.
The Benefits of Controlled Breathing Controlled breathing, an ancient practice, can reduce stress and soothe your body. A weekly routine of yoga and meditation may help to stave off aging-related mental decline, according to a study of older adults with memory problems. Yoga May Be Good for the Brain.
A stroll pays off in immediate ways, a study found. The Benefits of a Lunch Hour Walk. Get the Well Newsletter Get the best of Well, with the latest on health, fitness and nutrition, delivered to your inbox every week. Your email address Sign Up. Mindful Eating During times of stress, we can be particularly careless about what we eat and resort to mindless snacking, grabbing sweets from the office treat table or eating bags of junk food on the run.
Take a moment to appreciate the present. How to Be Mindful by the Grill Grilling out is a perfect activity to remind ourselves of what it means to be mindful. Make it something you love. Put the fork down and resist the temptation to take a second bite.